Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): emerging strategies for prevention and treatment

PTSD is a severe anxiety disorder that occurs following direct or indirect exposure to trauma. In cases of direct exposure to trauma symptoms of PTSD develop after a potentially life-threatening situation such as a serious injury, physical assault or threat of assault, torture or rape. PTSD may also result from indirect exposure to trauma such as ‘witnessing’ events that threaten the lives of others but do not directly affect the observer, or learning about a life-threatening event (especially one that affected a family member or friend). Symptoms of PTSD may begin within days following exposure to trauma or onset may be ‘delayed’ months or years. Symptoms of psychic numbing typically start immediately following exposure to trauma. Other symptoms that more often emerge in the days and weeks following trauma include repetitive intrusive memories of the traumatic experience (flashbacks), autonomic arousal (perspiration, rapid breathing, elevated heart rate), recurring nightmares, and hyper-vigilance. Traumatized individuals actively avoid situations that remind them of the traumatic event, may have amnesia of the traumatic event, and often experience profound feelings of detachment and loss.

Depressed mood, anxiety, anger, intense shame or guilt feelings, distractibility, irritability, and an exaggerated startle response may continue for years following exposure to trauma. Severely traumatized individuals may experience psychotic symptoms including dissociative symptoms (e.g. difficulty perceiving their body or the environment as ‘real’), and auditory or visual hallucinations. Traumatized individuals may be severely impaired by their symptoms and unable to function at work, in school, in relationships or other social contexts. The majority of individuals diagnosed with PTSD have at least one other serious mental health problem such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobic disorders, major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anti-social personality disorder, and alcohol or drug abuse. Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) is a less severe variant of PTSD in which all symptoms resolve within one month following exposure to trauma. Roughly one half of individuals who are diagnosed with ASD eventually develop full-blown PTSD.

The enormous personal, social and economic burden of human suffering, treatment costs, disability compensation, and productivity losses related to PTSD are major issues facing American society at this time because of the military conflicts in the Middle East. As many as one half of all persons diagnosed with PTSD who are treated with prescription medications or conventional psychological therapies do not fully respond. PTSD resulting from violent assault, rape or traumatic exposure to combat is often characterized by severe symptoms that are poorly response to treatment.

Conventional treatments of PTSD and their limitations
Conventional pharmacologic and psychological approaches widely used to treat PTSD are based on the assumption that traumatic exposure results in chronic dysregulation in neurophysiology and maladaptive coping with stressful situations. Pharmacological and psychological therapies endorsed by mainstream psychiatry reduce the severity of some PTSD symptoms however most conventional approaches have limited efficacy. In addition to problems associated with limited efficacy many medications cause significant adverse effects resulting in poor adherence or treatment discontinuation. For example the long-term management of PTSD with SSRIs or other conventional drugs frequently results in weight gain, sexual dysfunction and disturbed sleep. The limitations of current mainstream approaches invite open-minded consideration of the range of promising alternative and integrative approaches aimed at preventing PTSD following exposure to trauma and treating chronic PTSD.

Non-medication approaches used to prevent or treat PTSD
The limited effectiveness of available mainstream treatments of PTSD invites serious consideration of non-medication approaches. Natural supplements used to prevent PTSD (i.e. before or after exposure to trauma) or treat chonic PTSD include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), omega-3 essential fatty acids and a proprietary micro-nutrient formula. While most natural supplements are safe when a quality brand is used at the recommended dosage, some herbals and other supplements may have serious adverse effects when taken at inappropriate high dosages or in combination with prescription medications. Other non-medication approaches that can be used to prevent or treat PTSD include massage, dance/movement therapy, yoga, meditation and mindfulness training, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) and EEG biofeedback training.

Mindfulness training may reduce symptoms of PTSD when improved attention permits increased control over intrusive thoughts or memories. Patients who engage in a mindfulness practice can be trained to shift attention from remembered fears to present-focused problem solving permitting improved coping. The therapeutic benefits of mantra meditation are believed to be related to the effects of repetitive chanting on reducing the overall level of arousal permitting improved emotional self-regulation. Important advantages of meditation in the treatment of PTSD include ease of training, low cost and practical implementation in group settings.

If you are struggling with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and taking a medication that isn’t decreasing your symptoms, you are experiencing adverse effects, or you simply can’t afford to continue taking a medication that is working you may benefit from my book Post-traumatic stress disorder: The Integrative Mental Health Solution—safe, effective and affordable non-medication treatments of PTSD. In the book I provide practical information about a variety of safe, effective and affordable non-medication alternatives that will help you feel and function better such as herbals, vitamins and other natural supplements, whole body approaches, meditation and mind-body practices, and energy therapies.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The Integrative Mental Health Solution will help you
• Understand PTSD better
• Take inventory of your symptoms
• Learn about a variety of non-medication approaches for preventing or treating PTSD
• Develop a customized treatment plan that makes sense for you
• Re-evaluate your treatment plan and make changes if your initial plan doesn’t work

Click here to preview or buy my book on

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